The process of awarding mining licences can be complex and complicated.
Mining rights are often governed by multiple pieces of legislation, running hundreds of pages long. Sometimes national and provincial laws overlap and dictate different parts of the process. Often, it is unclear what fees need to be paid and when; and who is responsible for the various steps along the way. Sometimes, officials working within the government departments involved do not know the full process, which leads to inefficiencies and confusion for all involved.